Annotated Bibliography

Bauer, W. I., Reese, S., & McAllister, P. A. (2003). Transforming music teaching via technology: The role of professional development. Journal of Research in Music Education, 51, 4, 289-301.

This paper described a research study involving music educators from grades K-12. The articles survey or previous literature pointed out that while music teachers may be comfortable with technology for administrative tasks in general, they don’t implement it in the classroom as well. The teachers took part in a 1 week summer workshop that focused on technology for music education and methods for implementing that technology. Participants answered a questionnaire about their ability and comfort using technology to teach music both before and after thew workshop. Since half of undergraduate music majors in the USC School of Music are majoring in music education, I thought it would be good to look at some of the literature that concerns itself with music education and technology.

Cox, E. J. (2007). Music across campus. Music Reference Services Quarterly, 9, 4, 25-41.

This paper outlines a survey done of Iowa higher education institutions in 2006. The survey sought to determine how many school libraries were utilizing audio streaming, the reasons why many school were not, and the intricacies of their implementations. The study determined that, even though streaming was fairly well developed at that time, only a small percentage of school libraries had streaming services. The common factor cited was funding, both for infrastructure and staff. A majority of the survey responses highlighted copyright issues as primary concern. Most established audio streaming systems satisfy this concern by utilizing streaming instead of downloads, limiting access to enrolled students and faculty, requiring user authentication, and limiting the streaming to material owned by the library. This article reinforced the information I had been given by the USC Music Librarian and the decisions we made based on our discussions. Namely, that the audio for the enhanced listening excerpts must come from the USC Music Library holdings, it must be offered for streaming and not downloads, and the material will only be accessed from within the Blackboard site for the class.

Duggan, B., & O’Shea, B. (2011). Tunepal: searching a digital library of traditional music scores. OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, 27, 4, 284-297.

Duggan and O’Shea are both researchers and lecturers for the School of Computing in the Dublin Institute of Technology. This paper is a case study of the database, website, and software they develop called Tunepal. Tunepal provides a means of searching musical scores by content. The scores themselves are limited to single-line traditional melodies, but the database contains over 16,000 compositions. These compositions are encoded into a simple text format representation that can be searched, presented as a score, or played as audio. The writers also developed an iOS app that provides access from iOS devices. A user can sing or play a melody, and the Tunepal site will analyze their performance and find matching melodies in the database. Though at this time the system only works with single line melodies, I can imagine more complex pieces, even orchestra scores being implemented in a similar way. The search mechanism - ‘query-by-playing’ - is where this system is truly unique. I can see potential for exposing the MUSC 100L student to traditional/world/folk music partially through the use of Tunepal.

Durbridge, N.H., & Stratfold, M.P. (1996). Varying the texture: A study of art, learning and multimedia. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 96 (1).

This article provides a great overview of instructor and learner perspectives for subjective disciplines such as literature, art, and music. Of particular interest was the discussion of perceptual and conceptual frameworks. Much of music analysis is somewhat subjective and is built on concepts of form and structure. Often beginning students lack a firm grasp of these concepts. For instructors these concepts are second nature and they have difficulty remembering when they too had these difficulties. Likewise, beginning students have difficulty feeling that they are qualified to critique what may be considered ‘high art’. I have noticed this in discussions with the two course designers. Here my many decade distance from my music history and analysis courses helps me to think as a college freshman.

Flowers, P. (1983). The Effect of instruction in vocabulary and listening on nonmusicians' descriptions of changes in music. Journal of Research in Music Education. 31, 3, 179-189.

The subjects of this study were undergraduate non-music majors enrolled in a music appreciation course. This study sought to determine if musical vocabulary, extended listening, or a combination of both would increase the subjects’ perception of changes in the music. To keep the subjects focus on the music and not be distracted by writing about the change, the subjects were recorded as they listened and verbally marked when they heard a change. Afterwards they were able to listen back and describe the changes. Over the four weeks between the pre and post test, the subjects were divided into 4 groups. One studied music vocabulary, another studied the same vocabulary with accompanying listening examples, a third merely listened to excerpts and wrote about them, and a control group. The study found that the study of musical terms combined with listening examples yielded a greater increase in attention to the elements of music than either one alone. This fits well with the MUSC 100L goal of developing critical listening skills through directed musical examples combined with commentary.

Griffiths, D. (1999). The high analysis of low music. Music Analysis, 18, 3, 389-435.

An extensive survey of the many different ways popular music (ranging from Tin Pan Alley songwriters to Bob Dylan to Nirvana to The Beatles to Paul Simon) has been analyzed over the last several decades. The author looks at just about everything else surrounding popular music - social and political movements, changes in classical music, philosophy, literature, scholarly writings, etc. Since a portion of MUSC 100L deals with jazz, popular, and world music, I had hoped that this would be a great launching point for class discussions. However, the goals of the paper are too lofty and the writing too disjointed for it to be of much use for freshman music majors.

Harris, B. S., (2006). Video in education: A practical guide for teachers. Meridian Middle School Computer Technologies Journal, I, 9.

This article provides basic information regarding using video in instruction. The survey of previous literature touches on how learners integrate information present by means of video. It points out that video and filmmaking have their own ways of communicating inherent in the media itself, much like print conveys information thru punctuation and formatting. The article also suggests many ways video can be used in instruction to increase student attention and content retention. It also provides a concise guide to producing video, including methods for lighting, compositing, and framing shots. Preparing video with the internet in mind is discussed as well - covering compression and how to shot to enable compression to work well.

Holt, F. (2011). Is music becoming more visual? Online video content in the music industry. Visual Studies, 26:1, 50-61.

This article is a study of the how the music industry is utilizing online video in new ways. Video capabilities on the web have increased dramatically since 2005. The article cites three primary ways that video is used: “the online concert experience; the extraordinary concert event; and the video blog experience.” As my mentor and I began brainstorming about how to handle modern popular music in the MUSC 100L course, one of the first ideas she presented is how modern music has a strong visual element. This article can provide us support for our general beliefs and direction when develop the popular music modules.

McDonald, N. L., Fisher, D. & Helzer, R. (2002). Jazz listening activities: Children's literature and authentic music samples. Music Educators Journal, 89, 2, 43-49+57.

This article outlines a teaching method and modules for teaching jazz. The modules use listening excerpts, literature (both fiction and biographies), and activities such as informal performances. The articles divides the study of music into several areas, including listening to and analyzing styles, techniques, and instrumentations. The study continues by setting the music in historical context and relating it to culture. While designed for upper elementary and middle school students, the instructional concepts and modules put forth in this article provide a great model for the modules we are developing in MUSC 100L.

Nannicelli, T. (2011). Instructions and artworks: Musical scores, theatrical scripts, architectural plans, and screenplays. The British Journal of Aesthetics, 51, 4, 399-399.

The author examines the relationship between several types of instructions and the works of art that they are associated with. He considers four pairings: screenplays and film; theatrical script and stage-play; architectural plans and buildings; and musical scores and musical works. He explores the idea that one could ‘read’ a musical score (without any musical performance) and whether that reading constitutes a work of art or a performance of the musical work. While this paper does not have immediate and obvious impact on the development of the MUSC 100L materials, I found its perspective too interesting to pass up. It is uncommon for music training to even consider these concepts. For that very reason, it may be the perfect catalyst to foster critical thinking and active discussion in the MUSC 100L course meetings.

Neo, T-K., Neo, M., & Lim, M.-L., (2011) The use of multimedia as an innovative method of learning the history of music: A Malaysian experience. International Journal of Instructional Media, 38, 2, 187-96.

This study examined the use of a multimedia (computer based) learning environment for a music history course for first year undergraduate music majors. The intent was to replace traditional ‘chalk-and-talk’ lectures with a student-centered learning environment. Students were tested on the material before and after the course, as well as administered a questionnaire to capture their attitudes toward the multimedia delivery methods. What I found surprising about this study was that there was no control group or comparison to students who learned under the old method. There was a remarkable increase in the the students scores from the pre-test to the post-test, but this would be expected of students who had just taken an entire course. Obviously they should improve their knowledge of the subject - no matter what the teaching methods.

Phinney, P. (2005). Can't I just listen to that online?. Music Reference Services Quarterly, 9:2, 1-33.

An important role of music libraries in school of music is providing audio reserves. Music students cannot be expected to purchase all the music they are expected and encouraged to be exposed to. Music libraries hold on reserve in the library the audio recordings that are needed for courses. In the past, these student would need to come
the library itself to listen to class materials. This would place a large demand on the library, especially during the days before an exam. Libraries have now been moving to online access to digitized audio reserves. This article surveyed the use of electronic reserves and student preferences. The conclusion that students prefer the twenty-four-hour access and ability to listen off-site supports the decision to move the listening excerpts for MUSC 100L to a streaming format.

Pogonowski, L. (1989). Critical thinking and music listening. Music Educators Journal, 76, 1, 35-38.

This article focuses on developing students ability to think critically about music by engaging them in dialogs along with listening examples. The author points out that traditional classroom lectures, while important for imparting knowledge, do not serve this task well. The author also introduces structural dictation, where the instructor leads the students thru generating information about an unfamiliar musical work thru very general and then more specific questions. These questions should be thought provoking and not merely factual in nature. This article was directly related to many of the things we are trying to achieve in the revised MUSC 100L. However, since general musical knowledge of the students is varied, the enhanced listening excerpts will insure that all students have at least the fundamentals necessary to engage in the classroom discussions.

Prince, W. F. (1974). Effects of guided listening on musical enjoyment of junior high school students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 22, 1, 45-51.

This study sought to determine if guided listening (listening accompanied by analytic commentary) would increase a subject’s enjoyment of the particular music. The subjects in this test were junior high school students. They were tested at the start of the study to determine their enjoyment or ‘liking’ of several pieces of four styles of Western classical music - Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Twentieth Century. Two experimental groups were then exposed to guided listening in two of these styles. A control group received general music lessons. The study found that the guided listening did not appreciable change the subjects’ enjoyment of the that particular style. It is true that the goal of MUSC 100L is not to have the students enjoy the music more, but rather to think critically about it. However, this study is still interesting as its results run contrary to common assumptions and we amy want to remind the MUSC 100L facilitators that enjoyment is not the goal.

Rappaport, H. (2005). The Infinite variety of listening logs: Your students may astound you. Music Educators Journal, 91, 3, 29-33.

The author describes a system for implementing music listening and logging in the classroom. As the class listens to a piece of music, the students write what comes to mind - whether it be imagery or emotional reactions. Instructor prompts, such as directing the students to listen to the instrumentation, may also be used. The author describes the benefits of increased communication between teacher and student, and the student increased willingness to react to music and write about their reactions. The techniques in this study could potentially be utilized in MUSC 100L, either as an in class exercise or between class meetings.

Sheldon, D. A., & DeNardo G. (2005). Comparisons of higher-order thinking skills among prospective freshmen and upper-level preservice music education majors. Journal of Research in Music Education, 53, 1, 40-50.

The researchers tested and compared two groups - high school seniors with an intent to major in music education and third-year music education majors. Both groups watched the same short videos of various music groups and wrote observations. These observations were analyzed for their factual accuracy and for inferences, which require higher-order thinking skills. Previous literature had shown a link between higher-order thinking skills and teacher effectiveness. The third-year undergraduate music education majors, who had already received some teacher training, showed much more developed higher-order thinking skills. The freshmen’s lack of critical thinking skills seen in this study is mirrored in the USC School of Music. This gap is one of the primary reason the MUSC 100L course is being revised. We hope this course will foster the development of critical thinking skills earlier in the undergraduate music major’s schooling.

Smialek, T., & Boburka, R. R. (2006). The effect of cooperative listening exercises on the critical listening skills of college music-appreciation students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 54, 1, 57-72.

This research study sought to determine if the use of cooperative listening exercises would improve student’s critical listening skills over traditional lecture only formats. The students in the experimental group worked together to determine particular features of several listening excerpts that had not previously heard. These four cooperative sessions replaced normal class lectures. A second experimental group met for additional five shorter sessions during the semester. Both experimental groups faired better on the course listening exams. The group which had more consistent cooperative exercises faired the best. This research study focused on developing critical listening skills in non-music majors enrolled in music appreciation courses. While MUSC 100L is designed for music majors, it is in many ways similar to a music appreciation course, with the focus of developing critical listening skills. We are hoping to utilize online material as preparation for a weekly course meeting which can be focused on discussion and interaction. Perhaps part of the in class meeting should involve small group cooperation.

Woodford, P. (1996). Developing critical thinkers in music. Music Educators Journal, 83, 1, 27-32.

This article seeks to determine what is meant by critical thinking. Does it refer to general analysis and problem solving skills that can transfer from domain to domain, or is developed specifically within one context? Critical thinking skills in music can be developed by comparing and contrasting various aspects of music with counterexamples. Students should be allowed to construct their knowledge and develop their individuality. However, since they tend to initially form their beliefs based on their social and education influences, teachers should model critical thinking skills and not meet opposing viewpoints with hostility, but with open discussion.

Zalanowski, A. H. (1986). The effects of listening instructions and cognitive style on music appreciation. Journal of Research in Music Education, 34, 1, 43-53.

This study examined how instructions given before a subject listened to a piece of music affected their enjoyment, understanding, and recall of the piece in two separate tests. Listeners were non-music majors and they were split into three (first study) or four (second study) groups. One group was told to pay attention, another to close their eyes and create images, a third was given a descriptive imagery to go along with the music, and the fourth a written analytical program for the piece complete with sheet music of important melodies. While the different instructions did not appear to affect memory or attention, there were appreciable differences in the enjoyment and understanding of the pieces. The imagery tended to create higher enjoyment, while the analytical program did increase understand. This supports our decision to use enhanced listening examples for MUSC100L.

Zumbrunn, K. (1972). A Guided Listening Program in Twentieth-Century Music for Junior High Students. Journal of Research in Music Education, 20, 3, 370-378.

This study focused on whether a guided-listening program would increase general musical understanding or develop more musicality over other methods. The study utilized instruction in twentieth-century music and it sought to determine whether any gains realized would transfer to other musical styles. The subjects were devided into four groups. A control group received no musical instruction. A second group received standard musical instruction, without guided listening. A third group listened to a taped lesson while the four group was guided through the taped lesson by teacher. Two important conclusions of this study have bearing on the course being developed for MUSC 100L. First, that students exposed to exclusively taped lessons had less motivation that those who had teacher interaction. This points to the importance of the blending online delivery with in-class discussions in MUSC 100L. Also, in the study, gains made in understanding of twentieth century music did not transfer to music in general. This shows that it is indeed necessary to touch on all major genres and styles of music in MUSC 100L.